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For additional uses, see Bihar (disambiguation).


— State —


Area of Bihar in India

Coordinates (Patna): 25°22′N 85°08′E / 25. 37°N eighty-five. 13°E / 25. thirty seven; 85. 13Coordinates: 25°22′N 85°08′E / 25. 37°N 85. 13°E as well as 25. thirty seven; 85. 13| Country| India

Regions| Angika, Bhojpur, Magadh, Mithila

Divisions| Patna, Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger, Magadh| Established| 1912 (as Bihar)

Capital| Patna

Most significant city| Patna

Districts| 38 total


• Body| Government of India, Authorities of Bihar

• Governor| Devanand Konwar

• Chief Minister| Nitish Kumar (JDU)

• Legislature| Bicameral (243 + seventy five seats)

• Parliamentary constituency| 40

• High Court| Patna Substantial Court


• Total| 94, 163 km2 (36, 357 sq mi)

Place rank| 12th

Population (2011)[1]

• Total| 103, 804, 637

• Rank| 3rd

• Density| 1, 100/km2 (2, 900/sq mi)

Time zone| IST (UTC+05: 30)


ISO 3166 code| IN-BR

Vehicle registration| BR

HDI| 0. forty one[2](low)

HDI rank| 21st (2011)

Literacy| 63. 82% (28th)

73. 4% (male)

53. 3% (female)

Official language(s)| Hindi, Urdu, Angika, Maithili,[3]

Website| gov. bih. nic. in

Bihar (/bЙЁЛ€hЙ‘r/, evident [bЙЄЛ€Й¦aЛђr] ( listen)) is a state in northern India.[4][5] It's the 12th major state regarding geographical size at 32, 202 sq mi (98, 940 km2) and 3 rd largest by population. Practically 58% of Biharis are below the regarding 25,[6] which can be the highest portion in India. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh form the east and west limitations, respectively, with the state and, it is bounded by Nepal to the north and by Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two parts by the water Ganges which in turn flows through the middle from west to east.[7] Bihar has notified forest area of 6, 764. 14 km2,[8] which is 7. 2% of its physical area. Hindi and Urdu are the standard languages from the state, as the majority of the folks speak Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Bajjika. In 2000, Bihar was subdivided, the the southern part of part turning out to be the state of Jharkhand. Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power, learning( it produced its name via Vihar, that means centre of learning) and culture in ancient and classical India.[9] From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya empire as well as one of the planet's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism.[10] Magadha empires, notably underneath the Maurya and Gupta lignage, unified large parts of Southern region Asia within central secret.[11] Its capital Patna, in the past Pataliputra, was an important center of Of india civilisation. Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th hundred years respectively in Bihar, and are counted between the oldest and truly international universities, exactly where people around the globe came to analyze. Bihar features distinction of giving the world its initially democracy through Lichchivi (modern days Vaishali) during ancient era. For many years, Bihar lagged behind various other Indian declares in sociable and monetary development terms.[12][13][14] Economists and social experts claimed that the is a immediate result of the skewed guidelines of the central government, including the freight equalisation policy,[15][16] its apathy towards Bihar,[6][17][18] lack of Bihari sub-nationalism (resulting in not any spokesperson for the state),[16][19][20] and the Long term Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Business.[16] The state federal government has on the other hand made significant strides in improving governance.[21] The better governance has led to an...

References: 6. ^ a n Guruswamy, Mohan; Kaul Abhishek (15 January 2003). " The Financial Strangulation of Bihar". Center for Coverage Alternatives, Fresh Delhi, India.

14. ^ Wajihuddin, Mohammed (10 August 2008). " 'Bihari ' has become an abuse". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 August 08.

15. ^ Das, Arvind N. (1992). The Republic of Bihar). India: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-012351-2.

18. ^ ; Mohanty Jeevan Prakash (15 February 2004). " The De-urbanisation of Bihar". Hub for Policy Alternatives, Fresh Delhi, India.

twenty-one. ^ Phadnis, Aditi (2008). " Lalu in the red". Business Standard. Gathered 10 September 2008.

3. ^ Sharma, Supriya; Jha, Abhay Mohan (15 This summer 2008). " Bihar witnesses a calm transformation". NDTV. Retrieved 15 Come july 1st 2008.

24. ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (8 March 2008). " English makes inroads in Bihar villages". NDTV. Retrieved almost eight March 08.

25. ^ Modi, Ajay; Katakey, Rakteem (6 December 2007). " Reliance, Tata, Bharti eyesight Bihar sweets mills". Organization Standard. Retrieved 6 December 3 years ago.

26. ^ PTI (18 February 2008). " Global agencies display interest in Bihar growth". The Economic Moments (India). Retrieved 18 February 2008.

27. ^ Chaudhary, Pranava K (20 October 2007). " Reliance keen to purchase Bihar". The Times of India. Recovered 20 Oct 2007.

up to 29. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (10 April 2010). " Turn-around of India State Can Serve as a Model". Ny Times.

30. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (9 This summer 2007). " Where 'backward ' Bihar leads India". BBC News. Retrieved 26 April 2010.

thirty-two. ^ Nalin, Tanvi (9 December 2011). " Bihar wins just one more battle, has become ‘least corrupt state'". Governance now. Retrieved 18 February 2012.

47. ^ Omalley L. S. S i9000., History of Magadha, Veena Distribution, Delhi, 2006, p. 37


49. ^ Brownish, Judith Margaret (1972). Gandhi 's Rise to Power, Indian Politics 1915–1922: Of india Politics 1915–1922. New Delhi: Cambridge School Press Archive. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-521-09873-1.

51. ^ BandyopДЃdhyДЃya, Ељekhara (2004). Coming from Plassey to Partition: A brief history of Modern India. Orient Longman. p. 406. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2.

52. ^ BandyopДЃdhyДЃya, Ељekhara (2004). Via Plassey to Partition: As well as of Modern India. Orient Longman. p. 407. ISBN 978-81-250-2596-2.

62. ^ (2001 Census of India estimate)" Bihar". Office in the Registrar Standard and Census Commissioner. 2007-03-18. Recovered 2008-07-23.

67. ^ Yardley, Jim (23 November 2010). " Nitish Kumar Looks for Victory in Bihar Election". The New York Times.

74. ^ " Affected Delicacy". Tehelka. 2008. Retrieved twenty nine September 2008.

80. ^ " Conducting business the hard way in Bihar". The Monetary express. 2008.

87. ^ " For Bihar, P stands for Patna and prosperity". The Financial Express. 2008. Retrieved 7 April 08.

90. ^ Scott, David (May 1995). " Yoga and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen forty two (2): 141. doi: twelve. 1163/1568527952598657.

ninety five. ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (4 Aug 2008). " Brand new IIT in Patna impresses all". NDTV. Retrieved some August 08.

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